Saxena, S. K. et al. (2012). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Sect B. Sci. DOI: 10.1007/s40011-011-0012-y.

The Intolerable Burden of Chikungunya: What’s New, What’s Needed?

This Article

1,064 Readers

0 Comments

Print this Page

Shailendra K. Saxena, M. L. Arvinda Swamy, Sunil K. Verma, Rakhi Saxena

Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, W110 Uppal Road, Hyderabad, 500007, AP, India

Abstract

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arthropod born virus belonging to genus Alphavirus and family Togaviridae with a +(ve) sense single stranded RNA of 11.8 Kb as genome. CHIKV infections are not new, its presence was felt in the early nineteenth century but it was confined mostly to few regions in Africa and Asia. The recent outbreak which erupted in Asia and many European countries was due to combinatorial effect of various factors like climatic changes, due to global warming, that helped the vector population. Mutations in the viral genome, mostly E1 gene played a major role in the adaptation of the virus to mosquitoes, causing epidemics. Human behavioral factors like travel from endemic to non endemic regions, lack of proper sanitation and awareness on arthropod borne diseases resulted in the massive CHIKV epidemics all over the world. Especially in India, various reports came from many states but the worst affected states being Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala. CHIKV is not a fatal disease but some deaths have been reported in different parts of the globe. CHIKV not only affected the human health, but also had a heavy impact on the individual and national economy. CHIKV vaccines studies are raising hope for the effective treatment against the CHIKV infection. Till then the population and further growth of vectors for Chikungunya (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes) can be controlled by proper sanitation practices and public awareness on the arthropod borne diseases.


References

  1. Robinson MC (1955) An epidemic of virus disease in Southern Province, Tanganyika Territory, in 1952–53; I. Clinical features. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 49:28–32 CrossRef
  2. Lumsden WH (1955) An epidemic of virus disease in Southern Province, Tanganyika Territory, in 1952–53; II. General description and epidemiology. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 49:33–57 CrossRef
  3. Saxena SK, Singh M, Mishra N, Lakshmi V (2006) Resurgence of Chikungunya virus in India: an emerging threat. Euro Surveill 11(8):E060810.2
  4. Enserink M (2008) Entomology. A mosquito goes global. Science 320:864–866 CrossRef
  5. Rezza G, Nicoletti L, Angelini R, Romi R, Finarelli AC et al (2007) Infection with Chikungunya virus in Italy: an outbreak in a temperate region. Lancet 370:1840–1846 CrossRef
  6. Wang E, Volkova E, Adams AP, Forrester N, Xiao SY et al (2008) Chimeric alphavirus vaccine candidates for Chikungunya. Vaccine 26:5030–5039 CrossRef
  7. Tsetsarkin KA, Vanlandingham DL, McGee CE, Higgs S (2007) A single mutation in Chikungunya virus affects vector specificity and epidemic potential. PLoS Pathog 3(12):e201 CrossRef
  8. Vazeille M, Moutailler S, Coudrier D, Rousseaux C, Khun H, Huerre M, Thiria J, Dehecq JS, Fontenille D, Schuffenecker I, Despres P, Failloux AB (2007) Two Chikungunya isolates from the outbreak of La Reunion (Indian Ocean) exhibit different patterns of infection in the mosquito, Aedes albopictus. PLoS One 2(11):e1168 CrossRef
  9. Thiboutot MM, Kannan S, Kawalekar OU, Shedlock DJ, Khan AS, Sarangan G, Srikanth P, Weiner DB, Muthumani K (2010) Chikungunya: a potentially emerging epidemic? PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4(4):e623 CrossRef
  10. Ravi V (2006) Re-emergence of Chikungunya virus in India. Indian J Med Microbiol 24(2):83–84 CrossRef
  11. Josseran L, Paquet C, Zehgnoun A, Caillere N, Le Tertre A, Solet JL, Ledrans M (2006) Chikungunya disease outbreak, Reunion Island. Emerg Infect Dis 12:1994–1995 CrossRef
  12. CDC—Chikungunya. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA (2010); Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/Chikungunya/index.html
  13. (Fever guide) Copyright ©. http://www.chikungunya.in
  14. Schuffenecker I, Iteman I, Michault A, Murri S, Frangeul L, Vaney MC, Lavenir R, Pardigon N, Reynes JM, Pettinelli F, Biscornet L, Diancourt L, Michel S, Duquerroy S, Guigon G, Frenkiel MP, Bréhin AC, Cubito N, Desprès P, Kunst F, Rey FA, Zeller H, Brisse S (2006) Genome microevolution of Chikungunya viruses causing the Indian Ocean outbreak. PLoS Med 3:e263 CrossRef
  15. Kumar NP, Joseph R, Kamaraj T, Jambulingam P (2008) A226V mutation in virus during the 2007 Chikungunya outbreak in Kerala, India. J Gen Virol 89:1945–1948 CrossRef
  16. Cherian SS, Walimbe AM, Jadhav SM, Gandhe SS, Hundekar SL et al (2009) Evolutionary rates and timescale comparison of Chikungunya viruses inferred from the whole genome/E1 gene with special reference to the 2005–07 outbreak in the Indian subcontinent. Infect Genet Evol 9:16–23 CrossRef
  17. Zusinaite E, Tints K, Kiiver K, Spuul P, Karo-Astover L, Merits A, Sarand I (2007) Mutations at the palmitoylation site of non-structural protein nsP1 of Semliki Forest virus attenuate virus replication and cause accumulation of compensatory mutations. J Gen Virol 88:1977–1985 CrossRef
  18. Chatterjee PK, Eng CH, Kielian M (2002) Novel mutations that control the sphingolipid and cholesterol dependence of the Semliki Forest virus fusion protein. J Virol 76:12712–12722 CrossRef
  19. Lu YE, Kielian M (2000) Semliki forest virus budding: assay, mechanisms, and cholesterol requirement. J Virol 74:7708–7719 CrossRef
  20. Santagati MG, Määttä JA, Itäranta PV, Salmi AA, Hinkkanen AE (1995) The Semliki Forest virus E2 gene as a virulence determinant. J Gen Virol 76:47–52 CrossRef
  21. Santhosh SR, Dash PK, Parida M, Khan M, Rao PV (2009) Appearance of E1: A226V mutant Chikungunya virus in Coastal Karnataka, India during 2008 outbreak. Virol J 6:172 CrossRef
  22. Samuel PP, Krishnamoorthi R, Hamzakoya KK, Aggarwal CS (2009) Entomo-epidemiological investigations on Chikungunya outbreak in the Lakshadweep islands, Indian Ocean. Indian J Med Res 129:442–445
  23. Rao BB, George B (2010) Breeding patterns of Aedes stegomyia albopictus in periurban areas of Calicut, Kerala, India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 41:536–540
  24. Ahmad N (2009) Chikungunya fever—epidemic in rural Maharashtra. Indian J Community Med 34:372–374 CrossRef
  25. Dwibedi B, Mohapatra N, Beuria MK, Kerketta AS, Sabat J, Kar SK, Rao EV, Hazra RK, Parida SK, Marai N (2010) Emergence of Chikungunya virus infection in Orissa, India. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 10:347–354 CrossRef
  26. Jadhav M, Namboodripad M, Carman RH, Carey DE, Myers RM (1965) Chikungunya disease in infants and children in Vellore: a report of clinical and haematological features of virologically proved cases. Indian J Med Res 53:764–776
  27. Dandawate CN, Thiruvengadam KV, Kalyanasundaram V, Rajagopal J, Rao TR (1965) Serological survey in Madras city with special reference to Chikungunya. Indian J Med Res 53:707–714
  28. Thiruvengadam KV, Kalyanasundaram V, Rajgopal J (1965) Clinical and pathological studies on Chikungunya fever in Madras city. Indian J Med Res 53:729–744
  29. Chaturvedi UC, Mehrotra NK, Mathur MA, Kapoor AK, Mehrotra RM (1970) Chikungunya virus HI antibodies in the population of Lucknow and Kanpur. Indian J Med Res 58:297–301
  30. Thavara U, Tawatsin A, Pengsakul T, Bhakdeenuan P, Chanama S, Anantapreecha S, Molito C, Chompoosri J, Thammapalo S, Sawanpanyalert P, Siriyasatien P (2009) Outbreak of Chikungunya fever in Thailand and virus detection in field population of vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera:Culicidae). Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 40:951–962
  31. Tilston N, Skelly C, Weinstein P (2009) Pan-European Chikungunya surveillance: designing risk stratified surveillance zones. Int J Health Geogr 8:61 CrossRef
  32. Cameroon. Climatological information for Yaounde. World weather Information 2008, World Meteorological Organization. http://www.worldweather.org/055/c00257.htm. Cited 20 May 2008
  33. Kenya, Climatological Information for Mombasa. World Weather Information Service 2008. http://www.worldweather.org/071/c00520.htm. World Meteorological Organization. Accessed 20 May 2008
  34. Gabon, Climatological Information for Libreville. World Weather Information 2008. http://www.worldweather.org/128/c00255.htm. World Meteorological Organization. Accessed 20 May 2008
  35. Thailand, Climatological Information for Khon Kaen. World Weather Information 2008. http://www.worldweather.org/089/c00571.htm. World Meteorological Organization. Accessed 20 May 2008
  36. Singapore, Climatological Information for Singapore. World Weather Information 2008. http://www.worldweather.org/081/c00234.htm. World Meteorological Organization. Accessed 20 May 2008
  37. Sri Lanka, Climatological Information for Colombo. World Weather Information 2008. http://www.worldweather.org/084/c00227.htm. World Meteorological Organization. Accessed 20 May 2008
  38. India, Climatological Information for Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Chennai. World Weather Information Service 2008. http://www.worldweather.org/066/m066.htm. World Meteorological Organization. Accessed 20 May 2008
  39. Comoros, Climatological Information for Moroni. World Weather Information 2008. http://www.worldweather.org/058/c00311.htm. World Meteorological Organization. Accessed 20 May 2008
  40. Mauritius, Climatological Information for Port Louis 2008. http://www.worldweather.org/178/c01219.htm. Accessed 20 May 2008
  41. Port Blair, India: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data World Climate 2008. http://www.climatecharts.com/Locations/i/IN43333.php. Accessed 20 May 2008
  42. Climate, Reunion World Travel Guide 2008. http:www.worldtravelguide.net/country/233/climate/Africa/Reunion.html#. Accessed 20 May 2008
  43. Climate Averages, Bologna euro weather 2008. http://www.euroweather.net/english/climate/city_LIPE/climateaverage_bologna,Italy. Accessed 20 May 2008
  44. Diallo M, Thonnon J, Traore-Lamizana M, Fontenille D (1999) Vectors of Chikungunya virus in Senegal: current data and transmission cycles. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60:281–286
  45. Konstantinov OK, Diallo SM, Inapogi AP, Ba A, Kamara SK (2006) The mammals of Guinea as reservoirs and carriers of arboviruses. Med Parazitol (Mosk) 1:34–39
  46. Labadie K, Larcher T, Joubert C, Mannioui A, Delache B, Brochard P, Guigand L, Dubreil L, Lebon P, Verrier B, de Lamballerie X, Suhrbier A, Cherel Y, Le Grand R, Roques P (2010) Chikungunya disease in nonhuman primates involves long-term viral persistence in macrophages. J Clin Invest 120(3):894–906 CrossRef
  47. Lenglet Y, Barau G, Robillard PY, Randrianaivo H, Michault A, Bouveret A, Gérardin P, Boumahni B, Touret Y, Kauffmann E, Schuffenecker I, Gabriele M, Fourmaintraux A (2006) Chikungunya infection in pregnancy: evidence for intrauterine infection in pregnant women and vertical transmission in the parturient. Survey of the Reunion Island outbreak. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod Paris 35(6):578–583
  48. Watanaveeradej V, Endy TP, Simasathien S, Kerdpanich A, Polprasert N, Aree C, Vaughn DW, Nisalak A (2006) The study transplacental Chikungunya virus antibody kinetics, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis 12(11):1770–1772 CrossRef
  49. Hapuarachchi HC, Bandara KB, Sumanadasa SD, Hapugoda MD, Lai YL, Lee KS, Tan LK, Lin RT, Ng LF, Bucht G, Abeyewickreme W, Ng LC (2010) Re-emergence of Chikungunya virus in South-east Asia: virological evidence from Sri Lanka and Singapore. J Gen Virol 91(4):1067–1076 CrossRef
  50. Aoyama I, Uno K, Yumisashi T, Takasaki T, Lim CK, Kurane I, Kase T, Takahashi K (2010) A case of Chikungunya fever imported from India to Japan, follow-up of specific IgM and IgG antibodies over a 6-month period. Jpn J Infect Dis 63(1):65–66
  51. Zheng K, Li J, Zhang Q, Liang M, Li C, Lin M, Huang J, Li H, Xiang D, Wang N, Hong Y, Huang L, Li X, Pan D, Song W, Dai J, Guo B, Li D (2010) Genetic analysis of Chikungunya viruses imported to mainland China in 2008. Virol J 7:8 CrossRef
  52. Lim PL, Oh HM, Ooi EE (2009) Chikungunya in Singapore: imported cases among travelers visiting friends and relatives. J Travel Med 16(4):289–291 CrossRef
  53. Tanay A, Schwartz E, Bin H, Zeller H, Niedrig M, Dan M (2008) Chikungunya fever in Israeli travelers returning from northwestern India. J Travel Med 15(5):382–384 CrossRef
  54. Panning M, Grywna K, van Esbroeck M, Emmerich P, Drosten C (2008) Chikungunya fever in travelers returning to Europe from the Indian Ocean region, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis 14(3):416–422 CrossRef
  55. Lim CK, Nishibori T, Watanabe K, Ito M, Kotaki A, Tanaka K, Kurane I, Takasaki T (2009) Chikungunya virus isolated from a returnee to Japan from Sri Lanka: isolation of two sub-strains with different characteristics. Am J Trop Med Hyg 81(5):865–868 CrossRef
  56. Petersen LR, Stramer SL, Powers AM (2010) Chikungunya virus: possible impact on transfusion medicine. Transfus Med Rev 24:15–21 CrossRef
  57. Liumbruno GM, Calteri D, Petropulacos K, Mattivi A, Po C, Macini P, Tomasini I, Zucchelli P, Silvestri AR, Sambri V, Pupella S, Catalano L, Piccinini V, Calizzani G, Grazzini G (2008) The Chikungunya epidemic in Italy and its repercussion on the blood system. Blood Transfus 6:199–210
  58. Bordi L, Carletti F, Castilletti C, Chiappini R, Sambri V, Cavrini F, Ippolito G, Di Caro A, Capobianchi MR (2008) Presence of the A226V mutation in autochthonous and imported Italian Chikungunya virus strains. Clin Infect Dis 47:428–429 CrossRef
  59. Seyler T, Rizzo C, Finarelli AC, Po C, Alessio P, Sambri V, Ciofi Degli Atti ML, Salmaso S (2008) Autochthonous Chikungunya virus transmission may have occurred in Bologna, Italy, during the summer 2007 outbreak. Euro Surveill 17:13
  60. Chen LH, Wilson ME (2010) Dengue and Chikungunya infections in travelers. Curr Opin Infect Dis 23:438–444 CrossRef
  61. de Andrade DC, Jean S, Clavelou P, Dallel R, Bouhassira D (2010) Chronic pain associated with the Chikungunya fever: long lasting burden of an acute illness. BMC Infect Dis 10:31 CrossRef
  62. Talarmin F, Staïkowsky F, Schoenlaub P, Risbourg A, Nicolas X, Zagnoli A, Boyer P (2007) Skin and mucosal manifestations of Chikungunya virus infection in adults in Reunion Island. Med Trop (Mars) 67(2):167–173
  63. Robin S, Ramful D, Zettor J, Benhamou L, Jaffar-Bandjee MC, Rivière JP, Marichy J, Ezzedine K, Alessandri JL (2010) Severe bullous skin lesions associated with Chikungunya virus infection in small infants. Eur J Pediatr 169(1):67–72 CrossRef
  64. Schwartz O, Albert ML (2010) Biology and pathogenesis of Chikungunya virus. Nat Rev Microbiol 8(7):491–500 CrossRef
  65. Sourisseau M, Schilte C, Casartelli N, Trouillet C, Guivel-Benhassine F, Rudnicka D, Sol-Foulon N, Le Roux K, Prevost MC, Fsihi H, Frenkiel MP, Blanchet F, Afonso PV, Ceccaldi PE, Ozden S, Gessain A, Schuffenecker I, Verhasselt B, Zamborlini A, Saïb A, Rey FA, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Desprès P, Michault A, Albert ML, Schwartz O (2007) Characterization of reemerging Chikungunya virus. PLoS Pathog 3(6):e89 CrossRef
  66. Salvador B, Zhou Y, Michault A, Muench MO, Simmons G (2009) Characterization of Chikungunya pseudotyped viruses: identification of refractory cell lines and demonstration of cellular tropism differences mediated by mutations in E1 glycoprotein. Virology 393(1):33–41 CrossRef
  67. Mohan A, Kiran DH, Manohar IC, Kumar DP (2010) Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of Chikungunya fever: lessons learned from the re-emerging epidemic. Indian J Dermatol 55(1):54–63 CrossRef
  68. Tandale BV, Sathe PS, Arankalle VA, Wadia RS, Kulkarni R, Shah SV, Shah SK, Sheth JK, Sudeep AB, Tripathy AS, Mishra AC (2009) Systemic involvements and fatalities during Chikungunya epidemic in India, 2006. J Clin Virol 46(2):145–149 CrossRef
  69. Suryawanshi SD, Dube AH, Khadse RK, Jalgaonkar SV, Sathe PS, Zawar SD, Holay MP (2009) Clinical profile of Chikungunya fever in patients in a tertiary care centre in Maharashtra, India. Indian J Med Res 129(4):438–441
  70. Chandak NH, Kashyap RS, Kabra D, Karandikar P, Saha SS, Morey SH, Purohit HJ, Taori GM, Daginawala HF (2009) Neurological complications of Chikungunya virus infection. Neurol India 57(2):177–180 CrossRef
  71. Kannan M, Rajendran R, Sunish IP, Balasubramaniam R, Arunachalam N, Paramsivan R, Tewari SC, Samuel PP, Tyagi BK (2009) A study on Chikungunya outbreak during 2007 in Kerala, south India. Indian J Med Res 129(3):311–315
  72. Padmakumar B, Jayan JB, Menon R, Kottarathara AJ (2010) Clinical profile of Chikungunya sequelae, association with obesity and rest during acute phase. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 41(1):85–91
  73. Manimunda SP, Vijayachari P, Uppoor R, Sugunan AP, Singh SS, Rai SK, Sudeep AB, Muruganandam N, Chaitanya IK, Guruprasad DR (2010) Clinical progression of Chikungunya fever during acute and chronic arthritic stages and the changes in joint morphology as revealed by imaging. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 104(6):392–399 CrossRef
  74. Prashant S, Kumar AS, Basheeruddin DD, Chowdhary TN, Madhu B (2009) Cutaneous manifestations in patients suspected of Chikungunya disease. Indian J Dermatol 54(2):128–131 CrossRef
  75. Bandyopadhyay D, Ghosh SK (2010) Mucocutaneous manifestations of Chikungunya fever. Indian J Dermatol 55(1):64–67 CrossRef
  76. Bandyopadhyay D (2010) Dengue and Chikungunya fever: resurgent viral infections with prominent mucocutaneous features. Indian J Dermatol 55(1):53 CrossRef
  77. Kumar JC, Vivek Y, Sudhindra P, Dhananjaya B, Kumar AT, Guru K, Kumar A, Hegde MB (2010) Oral candidiasis in Chikungunya viral fever: a case report. Cases J 3:6 CrossRef
  78. Staikowsky F, Talarmin F, Grivard P, Souab A, Schuffenecker I, Le Roux K, Lecuit M, Michault A (2009) Prospective study of Chikungunya virus acute infection in the Island of La Réunion during the 2005–2006 outbreak. PLoS One 4(10):e7603 CrossRef
  79. Queyriaux B, Simon F, Grandadam M, Michel R, Tolou H et al (2008) Clinical burden of Chikungunya virus infection. Lancet Infect Dis 8:2–3 CrossRef
  80. Santhosh SR, Dash PK, Parida MM, Khan M, Tiwari M et al (2008) Comparative full genome analysis revealed E1: A226V shift in 2007 Indian Chikungunya virus isolates. Virus Res 135:36–41 CrossRef
  81. Simon F, Paule P, Oliver M (2008) Chikungunya virus-induced myopericarditis: toward an increase of dilated cardiomyopathy in countries with epidemics? Am J Trop Med Hyg 78:212–213
  82. Tesh RB (1982) Arthritides caused by mosquito-borne viruses. Annu Rev Med 33:31–40 CrossRef
  83. Robin S, Ramful D, Le Seach F, Jaffar-Bandjee MC, Rigou G et al (2008) Neurologic manifestations of pediatric Chikungunya infection. J Child Neurol 23:1028–1035 CrossRef
  84. Couderc T, Chrétien F, Schilte C, Disson O, Brigitte M, Guivel-Benhassine F, Touret Y, Barau G, Cayet N, Schuffenecker I, Desprès P, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Michault A, Albert ML, Lecuit M (2008) A mouse model for Chikungunya: young age and inefficient type-I interferon signaling are risk factors for severe disease. PLoS Pathog 4(2):e29 CrossRef
  85. Valamparampil JJ, Chirakkarot S, Letha S, Jayakumar C, Gopinathan KM (2009) Clinical profile of Chikungunya in infants. Indian J Pediatr 76(2):151–155 CrossRef
  86. Lewthwaite P, Vasanthapuram R, Osborne JC, Begum A, Plank JL, Shankar MV, Hewson R, Desai A, Beeching NJ, Ravikumar R, Solomon T (2009) Chikungunya virus and central nervous system infections in children, India. Emerg Infect Dis 15(2):329–331 CrossRef
  87. Sharma S, Dash PK, Santhosh SR, Shukla J, Parida M, Rao PV (2010) Development of a quantitative competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (QC-RT-PCR) for detection and quantitation of Chikungunya virus. Mol Biotechnol 45(1):49–55 CrossRef
  88. Bernard E, Solignat M, Gay B, Chazal N, Higgs S, Devaux C, Briant L (2010) Endocytosis of Chikungunya virus into mammalian cells: role of clathrin and early endosomal compartments. PLoS One 5(7):e11479 CrossRef
  89. Shukla J, Khan M, Tiwari M, Sannarangaiah S, Sharma S, Rao PV, Parida M (2009) Development and evaluation of antigen capture ELISA for early clinical diagnosis of Chikungunya. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 65(2):142–149 CrossRef
  90. Couderc T, Khandoudi N, Grandadam M, Visse C, Gangneux N, Bagot S, Prost JF, Lecuit M (2009) Prophylaxis and therapy for Chikungunya virus infection. J Infect Dis 200(4):516–523 CrossRef
  91. Kashyap RS, Morey SH, Chandak NH, Purohit HJ, Taori GM, Daginawala HF (2010) Detection of viral antigen, IgM and IgG antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid of Chikungunya patients with neurological complications. Cerebrospinal Fluid Res 7:12 CrossRef
  92. Khan M, Santhosh SR, Tiwari M, Lakshmana Rao PV, Parida M (2010) Assessment of in vitro prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine against Chikungunya virus in vero cells. J Med Virol 82(5):817–824 CrossRef
  93. Tiwari M, Parida M, Santhosh SR, Khan M, Dash PK, Rao PV (2009) Assessment of immunogenic potential of Vero adapted formalin inactivated vaccine derived from novel ECSA genotype of Chikungunya virus. Vaccine 27(18):2513–2522 CrossRef
  94. Wang E, Volkova E, Adams AP, Forrester N, Xiao SY, Frolov I, Weaver SC (2008) Chimeric alphavirus vaccine candidates for Chikungunya. Vaccine 26(39):5030–5039 CrossRef
  95. De Lamballerie X, Boisson V, Reynier JC, Enault S, Charrel RN, Flahault A et al (2008) On Chikungunya acute infection and chloroquine treatment. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 8:837–839 CrossRef
  96. Briolant S, Garin D, Scaramozzino N, Jouan A, Crance JM (2004) In vitro inhibition of Chikungunya and Semliki Forest viruses replication by antiviral compounds: synergistic effect of interferon-alpha and ribavirin combination. Antiviral Res 61(2):111–117 CrossRef
  97. Brighton SW (1984) Chloroquine phosphate treatment of chronic Chikungunya arthritis. An open pilot study. S Afr Med J 66(6):217–218
  98. McClain DJ, Pittman PR, Ramsburg HH, Nelson GO, Rossi CA, Mangiafico JA, Schmaljohn AL, Malinoski FJ (1998) Immunologic interference from sequential administration of live attenuated alphavirus vaccines. J Infect Dis 177(3):634–641 CrossRef
  99. Sorge F (2009) Prevention with repellent in children. Arch Pediatr 2:115–122 CrossRef
  100. Murugesan AG, Sathesh Prabu C, Selvakumar C (2009) Biolarvicidal activity of extracellular metabolites of the keratinophilic fungus Trichophyton mentagrophytes against larvae of Aedes aegypti—a major vector for Chikungunya and dengue. Folia Microbiol (Praha) 54(3):213–216 CrossRef

Keywords

Chikungunya, CHIKV, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Epidemic Vector, Virus, Mosquitoes

Figures from this Article


The Intolerable Burden of Chikungunya: What’s New, What’s Needed?

Web Access Links

Link to the Journal
Full Text (PDF)
DOI 10.1007/s40011-011-0012-y

Additional Information

Cited by Click here
How to Cite

Saxena, S. K., Swamy, M. L. A., Verma, S. K. and Saxena, R. (2012). The Intolerable Burden of Chikungunya: What’s New, What’s Needed? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Sect B. Sci. DOI: 10.1007/s40011-011-0012-y.

Short Citation Saxena, S. K. et al. (2012). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Sect B. Sci. DOI: 10.1007/s40011-011-0012-y.
Category


Send reprint request

*Dear Author(s), I would appreciate receiving reprint copy of this paper at the following email address. Thanks.

Email (required)


Send private message to Author

Your Name *
Your Email *
Your Phone
Your Message *
What is the sum of: *


Discuss this Article